Cannabinoid & Terpenoid
When cannabis is consumed, cannabinoids bind to receptor sites throughout our brain (receptors called CB-1) and body (CB-2). Different cannabinoids have different effects depending on which receptors they bind to.
For example, THC binds to receptors in the brain whereas CBN (cannabinol) has a strong affinity for CB-2 receptors located throughout the body. By aiming the right cannabinoid at the right receptors, different types of relief are achievable.
To simplify a complex system, they mediate communication between cells, and when there is a deficiency or problem with our endocannabinoid system, unpleasant symptoms and physical complications occur.
CBD is a naturally-occurring, non-toxic component of cannabis which has no psychoactive properties; whilst THC has some very real medical applications, CBD has been shown to be the more medically-focussed constituent contained within the plant:
- CBD can inhibit the growth of cancer cells
- It’s a fantastic antioxidant
- It can be used as a potent pain-killer
- It is an effective anti-inflammatory agent
- It has been shown to relieve anxiety
- It can work to reduce nausea
- It can work as an anti-spasmodic agent
The primary psychoactive ingredient (in marijuana) depending on the particular plant, either THC or cannabidiol is the most abundant cannabinoid in marijuana.
Cannabidiol is one of at least 85 active cannabinoids identified in cannabis. It is a major phytocannabinoid, accounting for up to 40% of the plant’s extract. CBD is considered to have a wider scope of medical applications than tetrahydrocannabinol.
Cannabidiolic Acid (CBDa)
Cannabidiolic acid (CBDa) is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid found in Cannabis that reportedly has therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of cancer.
Bears structural similarity to the other natural cannabinoids, including tetrahydrocannabinol, tetrahydrocannabivarin, cannabidiol, and cannabinol, among others.
A weak psychoactive cannabinoid found only in trace amounts in Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica. It is mostly a metabolite of tetrahydrocannabinol.
A non-psychotomimetic cannabinoid found in the Cannabis species. CBL is a degradative product like cannabinol.
A compound in cannabis that offers a unique array of effects and medical benefits that sets it apart from other cannabinoids like THC and CBD. THCV is similar to THC in molecular structure and psychoactive properties, but it provides a variety of pronounced and altogether different effects.
Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid (THCa)
Is found in variable quantities in fresh, undried cannabis, but is progressively decarboxylated to THC with drying, and especially under intense heating such as when cannabis is smoked.
A non-psychoactive cannabinoid found in the Cannabis genus of plants. Found in higher concentrations in hemp rather than in varieties of Cannabis cultivated for high tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content and their corresponding psychoactive properties.
Cannabigerolic Acid (CBGa)
Cannabigerolic acid (CBGa) can be thought of as the stem cell cannabinoid, which becomes THCa/THC, CBDa/CBD, CBCa/CBC, and CBG. Is formed when geranyl pyrophosphate combines with olivetolic acid within the cannabis plant. It is thanks to CBGa that all other medicinal effects of cannabis are possible.
Cannabinol Acid (CBNa)
THCa can be converted to CBNa over time. Prolonged exposure to air causes THCa to lose hydrogen molecules and oxidize; now we have CBNa. Just like the rest of the acidic cannabinoids, CBNa will convert to cannabinol (CBN) when exposed to heat or UV light.
Cannabidivarin is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid found in Cannabis. It is a homolog of cannabidiol, with the side-chain shortened by two methylene bridges (CH2 units). Plants with relatively high levels of CBDV have anticonvulsant effects.
Delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-8-THC) binds to the cannabinoid G-protein coupled receptor CB1, located in the central nervous system. This agent exhibits a lower psychotropic potency than delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC), the primary form of THC found in cannabis.